Academic Community Opinion on Mining

Academic Community Opinion:

Protect a Unique Environment in Southeast Arizona

The Problem of Proposed Open Pit Mines in Santa Rita Mountains and Patagonia Mountains in Southeast Arizona

By Elizabeth Bernays, Regents’ Professor, University of Arizona

Sonoita Creek

Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, AZ

Due to planned mines, southeast Arizona is threatened as a habitat for both wildlife and people. The biological diversity is higher than for any region in the USA, with its sky islands, washes, desert flats and grasslands creating a major tourism industry based on naturalists, hunters, hikers, bikers, and researchers. The Nature Conservancy’s Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Preserve is quoted by the Audubon Society as the one of the best birding locations in the entire country.

There is a drought in Arizona, and severe drought predicted in the coming decades. Water will become ever more critical yet international companies are planning to develop mines for silver, copper and other metals. Such mining industries use vast quantities of fresh water and produce vast quantities of contaminated water. Best known is the planned Rosemont mine in the Santa Rita Mountains. The site is only 25 miles from Tucson, and closer to a number of smaller townships. Rosemont’s water use estimate is over 3 trillion gallons per year [1] probably reducing the water table by at least 1000 feet over time and thus severely impacting the vegetation over square miles, affecting private wells and town water. Trees will disappear and habitat for most animals will be wrecked. The mining operation would last 20 years, yet drawdown of the water table is predicted to continue to expand for miles outward and for hundreds of years [2].

Just south of the Santa Rita Mountains, over 200 mining claims have recently been established in the Patagonia Mountains, with the possibility of future mining activity even bigger than that of Rosemont. This will destroy many square miles of forest and kill the town of Patagonia, along with the wild life. The oasis of Patagonia Lake would be lost forever. And the various companies are not to be trusted in their reports. For example, in October of 2011, a plan of operations submitted by Arizona Minerals, Inc. a subsidiary of Wildcat Silver Corporation, to conduct exploratory drilling on public lands near Patagonia was approved by the Forest Service. The memo lists floodplains, wetlands, and municipal watersheds as “not present.” Yet the site is right in Harshaw Creek watershed, draining into Sonoita Creek (and hence Patagonia, Santa Cruz River and Nogales). Already, there are pollutants above those allowed for drinking water, resulting from some mining activity [3].

Mexican Spotted Owl © Glen E Goodwin

Mexican Spotted Owl © Glen E Goodwin

All the lands being considered for mining are prime wildlife habitat, provide important wildlife corridors, and are home to abundant game and non-game species such as deer, javelina, bats, mountain lion, coatimundi, quail, hawks, vultures, golden eagles, and songbirds. Threatened and endangered species, such as the Lesser Long-nosed Bat, and the Pima Pineapple Cactus, and other vulnerable species such as the Jaguar, Rufous-winged Sparrow, Bells Vireo occur in the area. In the Patagonia Mountains several of the proposed mines are in critical habitat for the threatened Mexican Spotted Owl [4]. The actual damage to the habitat, and the derived damage from lowered water tables would severely impact these and most other animals.

Besides the drastic effect on water, the level of industrial activity and road traffic will have a huge impact on the whole area south of Tucson. For Rosemont mine alone, hundreds of mine trucks will travel 24/7 up and down highway 83. There would also be truckloads of concentrated sulfuric acid, a variety of petroleum products, surfactants, and cyanide. This is a two-lane major scenic route for the cyclists, motorcyclists and motorists, as well as off-road riders, that make up a large part of the sustainable industry in the “Mountain Empire” of Sonoita, Elgin and Patagonia (birding, hiking, wine tasting, horseback riding, biking, camping, hunting, visiting art galleries and historical monuments). If there were to be mining in the Patagonia Mountains, truck traffic could be ten times more than the traffic of the Rosemont mine. The current sustainable economy would be lost to a 20-year activity, leaving a trail of ghost towns.

In some of the most scenic and popular regions in the state these open pit mines also threaten the whole appearance of the countryside. Rosemont pit would cover 700 acres and the billion tons of tailings would cover another 3,000 acres, most of it on forestry land. Such tailings provide the toxic dust familiar from such mines, and a hazard in this windy desert environment. Further, there would be 250 acres of equipment, 24/7 blasting, and the end of dark skies in this astronomers’ paradise. Air quality in relation to Rosemont is serious enough for Pima County to deny an air-quality permit though the company is working to overturn the ruling. The situation would be worse in Patagonia with the nearest possible mine being just eight miles south of town.

Sierrita Mine, Green Valley, AZ

Sierrita Mine, Green Valley, AZ

The huge pits with their toxic lakes will be a serious hazard for birds of many species including rare migrating birds, and especially those attracted to water. The liners of such pits are known to tear quite frequently, releasing noxious chemicals into the ground water. The released acid reacts with other ores washing out other toxic heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and arsenic, so that they contaminate the ground water.

In conclusion, it appears that southeastern Arizona, and in particular the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mountain region is too sensitive, too scenic, and too valuable to be exploited by huge mining operations. This is a desert and water is its most valuable resource. This is a special area for wildlife and recreation of all kinds. This is too close to a major city and to historic and irreplaceable small townships with their special kinds of sustainable development.

[1] Water Consumption at Copper Mines in Arizona, by Dr. Madan M. Singh, State of Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources, Special Report 29, December 2010.
[2] Hydrogeology of the Santa Rita Rosemont Project Site: Numerical Groundwater Modeling of the Conceptual Flow, Model and Effects of the Construction of the Proposed Open Pit, April 2008. Prepared for Pima County Regional Flood Control District, Prepared by: Tom Myers PhD, Hydrologic Consultant.
[3] ADEQ Report, Total Maximum Daily Load For Upper Alum Gulch, Sonoita Creek Basin, Santa Cruz River Watershed, Coronado National Forest near Patagonia, Santa Cruz County, Arizona HUC 15050301-561A Parameters: Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, and Acidity. June 30, 2003.
[4] Ganey JL and Balda RP Distribution and Habitat Use of the Mexican Spotted Owl in Arizona, Condor 91, 366-361.

  1. Elizabeth Bernays, Regents’ Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  2. H. Ronald Pulliam, Regents Professor Emeritus, University of Georgia, USA
  3. Daniela Rodrigues, Assistant Professor, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  4. Gary Paul Nabhan, Kellogg Professor of Southwestern Borderlands Food and Water Security, University of Arizona, USA
  5. Loy Volkman, Professor Emerita, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  6. Michael Singer, Associate Professor, Wesleyan University, CT, USA
  7. Yves Carriere, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  8. Noah Whiteman, Assistant Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  9. Wulfila Gronenberg, Associate Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  10. Wayne Getz, Professor of Environmental Science, UC Berkeley, USA
  11. Wendy Moore, Assistant Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  12. Richard C. Hoyer, Bird Biologist, Tucson, Arizona, USA
  13. Nancy A. Moran, Professor, Yale University, and member of the National Academy of Sciences, USA
  14. Howard Ochman, Professor, Yale University, USA
  15. Lee A. Rogers, Scientist, Patagonia, Arizona, USa
  16. Susan Wethington, Director of the Hummingbird Monitoring Network, Patagonia, Arizona, USA
  17. Richard Karban, Professor of Entomology, University of California, Davis, USA
  18. Anurag Agrawal, Professor of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, USA
  19. Alexander V. Badyaev, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  20. Mary E. Power, Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  21. Linda Gheen, Photojournalist, Patagonia, AZ, USA
  22. Kathi Noaker, Board Member, Patagonia Area Resource Alliance
  23. Michael Stabile, Board Member, Patagonia Area Resource Alliance
  24. Wendy Russell, Board Member, Patagonia Area Resource Alliance
  25. Glen Goodwin, Board Member, Patagonia Area Resource Alliance
  26. Cliff Hirsch, Board Member, Patagonia Area Resource Alliance
  27. Linda Hirsch, Board Member, Patagonia Area Resource Alliance
  28. Damian O. Elias, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  29. Gregory A. Sword, Charles R Parencia Professor, Texas A&M University, USA
  30. Michael Worobey, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  31. John G. Hildebrand, Regents’ Professor, University of Arizona, and member of the National Academy of Sciences, USA
  32. Alison Hawthorne Deming, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  33. David L. Wagner, Professor, University of Connecticut, USA
  34. James E. Pepper, Professor of Environmental Studies, Emeritus, University of California, Santa Cruz, USA
  35. Gail Browne, Executive Director University of Arizona Poetry Center, USA
  36. John Stireman, Associate Professor, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA
  37. Kerry L. Bright, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA
  38. Nickolas M. Waser, University of California Riverside and University of Arizona, USA
  39. Mary V. Price, University of California Riverside and University of Arizona, USA
  40. Michael W. Nachman, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  41. Daniel R. Papaj, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  42. Oliver A. Ryder, Adjunct Professor, University of California, San Diego,USA
  43. Peter Chesson, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  44. Michael D. Greenfield, Professeur / Chercheur, CNRS, Univ François Rabelais de Tours, France
  45. Anna Dornhaus, Associate Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  46. Robert Smith, Associate Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  47. Robert Merideth, Editor, Tucson, AZ, USA
  48. Phil Jenkins, Curator, University of Arizona Herbarium, USA
  49. Paul Feeny, Professor Emeritus, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, USA
  50. Stephen J. Simpson, ARC Laureate Professor, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Sydney, Australia
  51. Sanford Eigenbrode, Professor and Chair of the Division of Entomology, University of Idaho, USA
  52. Chen-Zhu Wang, Professor, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  53. Ronald L. Rutowski, Professor, Arizona State University, USA
  54. Fenton Johnson, Associate Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  55. Shelley McMahon, Associate Professor, University of Arizona and Director, UA Herbarium, USA
  56. Erich Städler, PD Emeritus, Section of Conservation Biology, University of Basel, Switzerland
  57. Richard Michod, Professor and Department Head Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, USA
  58. Dr Martin Taylor, former conservation biologist with the Center for Biological Diversity,Tucson,USA
  59. Dr Joshua Rosenthal, Ecosystems Biologist, Washington,DC, USA
  60. Prof. Carol Bender, University Distinguished Outreach Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  61. Martha Weiss, Associate Professor, Georgetown University, USA
  62. Andreas Erhardt, Professor, University of Basel, Switzerland
  63. Dr. Thomas R. Van Devender, Sky Island Alliance, USA
  64. Thomas G. Whitham, Regents’ Professor, Northern Arizona University, USA
  65. Douglas J. Emlen, Professor, The University of Montana, USA
  66. Dr. Phil deVries, Professor, University of New Orleans, USA
  67. Jessica Lamberton, Biologist, Sky Island Alliance, USA
  68. Dr. Steven J. Seybold, Research Entomologist, USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station and Faculty Affiliate, Dept. Entomology, University of California, Davis, USA
  69. Alexander H. Purcell, Professor Emeritus, Environmental Sciences, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  70. Shahid Naeem, Professor of Ecology, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, Columbia University, NY, USA
  71. Dr. Carol Baird, Executive Officer, California Institute for Biodiversity, Moraga, CA, USA
  72. Dr. Wade Bunting, Anthropologist, formerly at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA
  73. Alison Bunting, formerly at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA
  74. Dr. Richard B. Levine, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  75. Dr. Alison Purcell O’Dowd, Professor, Humboldt State University, Department of Environmental Science & Management, USA
  76. Katharine Milton, Professor. Environmental Science, Policy & Management, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  77. Dr. Loy Volkman, Professor Emerita, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  78. Susan Hardy Aiken, Distinguished Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  79. Catherine A Gehring, Professor, Northern Arizona University, USA
  80. Dr. Andrew D. Graves, Forest Entomologist, USDA Forest Service, New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
  81. Dr.Bruce Walsh, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  82. Dr.Philip C. Rosen, Research Scientist, School of Natural Resources, University of Arizona, USA
  83. Dr. Guy R. McPherson, Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona, USA
  84. Bert Hölldobler, Foundation Professor, Arizona State University, USA
  85. Rodrigo P.P. Almeida, Associate Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  86. Regis Ferriere, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  87. Judie Bronstein, Distinguished Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  88. David Raubenheimer, Professor, Massey University, New Zealand, USA
  89. Margaret G. Kidwell, Regents’ Professor Emerita, The University of Arizona and member of the National Academy of Sciences, USA
  90. Wayne Maddison, Professor, University of British Columbia, Canada
  91. C.William Birky Jr, Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona, USA
  92. Carlos Martinez Del Rio, Professor, University of Wyoming, USA
  93. Therese Markow, Amylin Professor in Life Sciences, University of California, San Diego, USA
  94. Jose M.C. Ribeiro, Vector Biologist, Senior Research Scientist at a Federal Institution, Former Professor at the University of Arizona, USA
  95. Letitia Aviles, Professor, University of British Columbia, Canada
  96. Frederic Marion-Poll, Professor, Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon, France
  97. Joseph L. Spencer, Professor, University of Illinois, Champaign, USA
  98. John Glendinning, Professor, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, USA
  99. Peter Nonacs, Professor, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
  100. Dr. Cristina Sandoval, Director, University of California Santa Barbara, Coal Oil Point Reserve, USA
  101. Dr. Kevin Lafferty, Research Scientist, USGS, USA
  102. Bruce Tabashnik, Professor, and Head of Entomology, University of Arizona, USA
  103. Dr. Andrea Mathias, Research Scientist, University of Arizona, USA
  104. Dr. David Walker, Research Scientist, University of Arizona, USA
  105. Patrick Abbot, Associate Professor, Vanderbilt University, USA
  106. Larry Singer, Professor, University of Southern California, USA
  107. Fred Gould,William Neal Reynolds Distinguished Professor, University of North Carolina, USA
  108. Dr Dorothy Comeau, Topanga, California, USA
  109. Jed Fuhrman, McCulloch-Crosby Professor, University of Southern California, USA
  110. John Pickering, Associate Professor,University of Georgia, USA
  111. Dr. MaryLou Higgins, World Wildlife Fund, Colombia
  112. Barrett Klein, Lecturer, University of Konstanz, Germany
  113. Joanna Monti-Masel, Associate Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  114. Craig LaMunyon, Associate Professor, Cal Poly Pomona, USA
  115. Jerry Powell, Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  116. Dr. Yar Petryszyn, University of Arizona, USA
  117. Professor, Doctor Thomas Hartmann, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany
  118. Cherry McCormack, Birdwatcher, Newcastle, Australia
  119. Dr. Donald Champagne, Professor, University of Georgia, USA
  120. Kipling Will, Associate Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  121. Conrad Istock, Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona; Visiting Fellow Cornell University, USA
  122. Daniel Rubinoff, Associate Professor, University of Hawaii, USA
  123. Gregory Sword, Charles R. Parencia Chair in Cotton Entomology, Texas A&M University, USA
  124. David Byrne, Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona, USA
  125. Elizabeth Braker, Associate Professor, Occidental College, California, USA
  126. David Galbraith, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  127. Willilam Conner, Professor, Wake Forest University, North Carolina, USA
  128. Donald R Strong, Professor, University of California Davis, USA
  129. Diana Wheeler, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  130. Peter Wilfred Price, Professor Emeritus, Northern Arizona University, USA
  131. Brian Farrell, Professor, Harvard University, USA
  132. Gary Felton, Professor, Penn State University, USA
  133. Robin Chazdon, Professor, University of Connecticut, USA
  134. Reuven Dukas, Professor, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada
  135. Jane Bock, Professor Emerita, University of Colorado, USA
  136. Martha Hunter, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  137. Robert A. Raguso, Professor, Cornell University, USA
  138. Robert Robichaux, Distinguished Professor, University of Arizona
  139. Carl Bock, Professor Emeritus, University of Colorado
  140. Professor Dr Louis Schoonhoven, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
  141. David Wood, Professor, University of California Berkeley
  142. Aurelie Sheehan, Professor, University of Arizona
  143. Jennifer Fewell, Professor, Arizona State University
  144. Lee A. Dyer, Professor, University of Nevada, Reno
  145. Rodolfo Dirzo, Bing Professor, Stanford University
  146. Dr. Katrina Mangin, Director Science Education Outreach, University of Arizona
  147. John Stoffolano, Professor, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
  148. Ray B. Nagle, MD, Professor, University of Arizona
  149. Dr. Stephen Buchmann, Affiliated Scientist, University of Arizona
  150. Goggy Davidovitz, Assistant Professor, University of Arizona
  151. Lisa Nagy, Professor, University of Arizona
  152. Joanna Moni-Masel, Associate Professor, University of Arizona
  153. Renee Duckworth, Associate Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  154. Matthew Sullivan, Assistant Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  155. Oliver Monti-Masel, Associate Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  156. Virginia Rich, Assistant Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  157. James Tumlinson, Professor, Ralph O. Mumma Professor of Entomology, Penn State University, USA
  158. James Frazier, Professor, Penn State University, USA
  159. Pedro Barbosa, Professor, University of Maryland, USA
  160. David Raichlen, Assistant Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  161. Dr. Tobias Uller, Edward Grey Institute, Oxford University, UK
  162. Dr. Tristram Wyatt, Senior Research Associate, Oxford University, UK
  163. Professor Dr. Erich Buchner, Institute for Clinical Neurobiology, Wurtzburg, Germany
  164. Professor Stig Larsson, Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala, Sweden
  165. Dr. Ray Barbehenn, Associate Research Scientist, University of Michigan, USA
  166. Dr. Helmet Van Emden, Professor Emeritus, University of Reading, UK
  167. Daniel Potter. B.C.Pass Professor, University of Kentucky, USA
  168. Phyllis Coley, Professor, University of Utah, USA
  169. Dana Garrigan, Associate Professor, Carthage College, Wisconsin, USA
  170. Dr.Peter Haskell, former Director, Centre for Overseas Pest Research UK and Professor Emeritus, Cardiff University, UK
  171. Naomi Shahib Nye, Chancellor, Academy of American Poets, USA
  172. Steve Russell, Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona, USA
  173. Frank Messina, Professor, Utah State University, USA
  174. Tom Kursar, Professor, University of Utah, USA
  175. James B. Whitfield, Professor, University of Illinois, USA
  176. Sydney A Cameron, Associate Professor, University of Illinois, USA
  177. Carol D von Dolen, Associate Professor, Utah State University, USA
  178. Mark Scriber, Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University, USA
  179. Hugh Dingle, Professor Emeritus, University of California, Davis, USA
  180. Jim Miller, Professor, Michigan State University, USA
  181. Marion Harris, Professor, North Dakota State University, USA
  182. Yoonseong Park, Associate Professor, Kansas State University, USA
  183. Kerry Oliver, Assistant Professor, University of Georgia, USA
  184. Jonathan Gershenzon, Professor, Max Planck for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany
  185. Karl Kramer, Adjunct Professor Emeritus, Kansas State University, Research Scientist USDA-ARS, USA
  186. Virginia R. Kramer, Kansas State University, USA
  187. Hanna Mustaparta, Professor, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  188. Michael C. Singer, Professor, University of Texas, Austin, USA
  189. Christer Wiklund, Professor, Stockholm University, Sweden
  190. Dr. Camille Parmesan, National Aquarium Chair in the Public Understanding of Oceans and Human Health, Plymouth University, UK
  191. Michael Kanost, Distinguished Professor, Kansas State University, USA
  192. Dr. Ian Baldwin, Professor, Max Planck for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany
  193. Stuart Reynolds, Professor Emeritus, University of Bath, and President, Royal Entomological Society, UK
  194. John Pickett, Michael Elliott Distinguished Research Fellow, Rothamsted Research Station, and Fellow of the Royal Society, UK
  195. Soren Nylin, Professor, Stockholm University, Sweden
  196. Dr. Richard Harrington, head scientist, Rothamsted Research Station, and Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society, UK
  197. Niklas Janz, Associate Professor, Stockholm University, Sweden
  198. Aletta Bonn, Professor, Free University of Berlin, Germany
  199. Steph Menken, Professor, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  200. Joop van Loon, Associate Professor, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
  201. Michael Siva-Jothy, Professor, University of Sheffield, UK
  202. Larry Gilbert, Professor, University of Texas, Austin, USA
  203. Dr. Adam Dobson, Cornell University, USA
  204. Dr. William G. Eberhard, Scientist, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama
  205. Professor Dr. Jana Petermann, Free University, Berlin, Germany
  206. Jens Rolff, Professor, Free University, Berlin, Germany
  207. Xavier Belles Ros, Director, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Barcelona, Spain
  208. Marlene Zuk, Professor, University of Minnesota, USA
  209. Gonzalo Giribet, Professor, Harvard University, USA
  210. Susan Masta, Associate Professor, Portland State University, USA
  211. Colin Osborne, Professor, University of Sheffield, UK
  212. Gerd Gade, Professor, University of Cape Town, South Africa
  213. Dr.May Jane West-Eberhard, Scientist, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama
  214. Greta Binford, Assistant Professor, Lewis and Clark College, Portland, Oregon, USA
  215. Nicholas Barry Davies, Professor and Fellow of the Royal Society, University of Cambridge, UK
  216. Tamas Szekely, Professor, University of Bath, Bath, UK
  217. Stephen Perlman, Professor, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  218. Erin Espelie, Executive Editor, Natural History Magazine, USA
  219. Michael Smith, Professor, Kansas State University,USA
  220. Robert Colwell, Distinguished Professor, University of Connecticut, USA
  221. Professor Dr. Marcel Dicke, Wageningen University, winner of NWO Spinoza Prize, The Netherlands
  222. Karl Espelie, Professor, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
  223. Curtis Lively, Distinguished Professor, Indiana University, USA
  224. Richard Shelton, Regents’ Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona, USA
  225. John Law, Regents’ Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona, and member of the National Academy of Sciences, USA
  226. Dr. Tibor Jermy, Director Emeritus, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
  227. Stephen A. Wainright, Professor Emeritus, Duke University, USA
  228. Dr. Alex Mira, Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, Valencia, Spain
  229. Dr. Carolina Reisenman, Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, USA
  230. Lisa Nagy, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  231. Andrew Balmford, Professor of Conservation Science, University of Cambridge, UK
  232. Thomas Mitchell-Olds, Duke University, USA
  233. Dr. Geoff Monteith, Queensland Museum, Australia
  234. H.C.J. Godfray, Professor, Oxford University and Fellow of the Royal Society, UK
  235. Joy Winzerling, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  236. Dr. Gopalan C. Unnithan, Extension Entomologist, University of Arizona, USA
  237. Aurelio Jose Figueredo, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  238. Philip Hedrick, Professor, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
  239. Dr. Nicholas J. Gibson, Neurobiologist, University of Arizona, USA
  240. Gregory Martin, Associate Professor, University of New Mexico, USA
  241. Michael Breed, Professor, University of Colorado, USA
  242. Alan Nighorn, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  243. Patricia Stock, Associate Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  244. Scott Collins, Professor, and Director of the Sevilleta LTER, University of New Mexico, USA
  245. Brian Larkins, Porterfield and Regents Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  246. Dennis Ray, University Distinguished Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  247. Professor Dr. Louise E.M.Vet, Director, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Wageningen, The Netherlands
  248. Emilie Snell-Rood, Assistant Professor, University of Minnesota, USA
  249. Alison Brody, Professor, University of Vermont, USA
  250. Jeremy Thomas, OBE, Professor, and Fellow of New College, University of Oxford
  251. Dr. Justin Schmidt, Southwestern Biological Institute and Adjunct Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  252. Astrid Kodric-Brown, Professor, University of New Mexico, USA
  253. James H. Brown, Distinguished Professor, University of New Mexico, USA
  254. Gordon Grigg, Professor Emeritus, University of Queensland, Australia
  255. Paul Opler, Professor, Colorado State University, USA
  256. Meron Zalucki, Professor, University of Queensland, Australia
  257. Philip Service, Professor, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, USA
  258. Dr. Donald Reynolds, Scientist, Natural Resources Institute, Greenwhich University, UK
  259. Xianchun Li, Associate Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  260. Robert Cheke, Scientist, Natural Resources Institute, Greenwhich University, UK
  261. M. J. Crawley, Professor, Imperial College, University of London, and Fellow of the Royal Society, UK
  262. John Reese, Professor, Kansas State University, USA
  263. Simon R. Leather, Professor, Imperial College, University of London, UK
  264. Jens Kvist Nielsen, Professor, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen Denmark
  265. Mark Beilstein, Assistant Professor, School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, USA
  266. Dr. Frank Ramberg, Entomologist, University of Arizona, USA
  267. Stephen Malcolm, Professor, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, USA
  268. Patrice Morrow, Professor Emerita, University of Minnesota, USA
  269. Eileen A. Hebets, Associate Professor, University of Nebraska, USA
  270. Soren Bak, Professor, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
  271. Klaas Vrieling, Professor, Leiden University, The Netherlands
  272. Jacques Pasteels, Professor, Free University of Brussels, Belgium
  273. Professor Dr. Teja Tscharntke, Georg.August University, Gottingen, Germany
  274. John Jaenike, Professor, University of Rochester, New York
  275. David Karowe, Professor, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, USA
  276. David Pfennig, Zachary Taylor Smith Professor, University of North Carolina, USA
  277. Hans VanEtten, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  278. Dr. Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Adjunct Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  279. Dr. Bobbi Peckarsky, Emeritus Professor, Cornell University and Adjunct Professor, University of Wisconsin, USA
  280. John Vandermeer, Asa Gray Distinguished Professor, University of Michigan, USA
  281. C.Ronald Carroll, Associate Dean/Co-Director UGA River Basis Center, University of Georgia, USA
  282. Carol Hoffman, Professor, University of Georgia, USA
  283. Takayuki Ohgushi, Professor, Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Japan
  284. Dr. Gerard Febvay, Scientist INRA, Lyon, France
  285. Mark Hunter, Henry A. Gleason Collegiate Professor, University of Michigan, USA
  286. James L. Patton, Professor, University of California Berkeley, USA
  287. Gimme Walter, Professor, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
  288. Svata Louda, Charles Bessey Professor Emeritus, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
  289. Paul K. Dayton, Professor, Scripps Institute, University of California San Diego, USA
  290. E.Annette Halpern Hinds, Professor Emeritus, Cal State University, Bakersfield, California, USA
  291. Dr. Mark R. Stromberg, Professor Emeritus and Director of Hastings Natural History Reservation, University of California Berkeley, USA
  292. Paul Feeny, Professor Emeritus, Cornell University, USA
  293. Dr. Michael Hochberg, Director, CNRS, Montpelier University, France
  294. Mark Beilstein, Assistant Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  295. David Wagner, Professor, University of Connecticut, USA
  296. Dr. Martine Rahier, Professor and Rector, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland
  297. David Hinds, Professor Emeritus, California State University, Bakersfield, California, USA
  298. Jenna Moore, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, USA
  299. Dr. Charles J. Cole, Curator-in-Charge, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA [as a private citizen]
  300. Dr. Carol R. Townsend, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA [as a private citizen]
  301. Linda Restifo, Professor, University of Arizona, USA
  302. Bernard Roitberg, Professor, Simon Fraser University, Canada
  303. Richard L. Lindroth, Professor and Associate Dean, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA
  304. Michael R. Strand, Distinguished Research Professor, University of Georgia, USA
  305. Jim Hardie, Professor, Royal Entomological Society Director of Science and Imperial College, University of London, UK
  306. Frank Hanson, Professor Emeritus, University of Maryland Baltimore Campus, USA
  307. Richard L. Hutto, Professor and Director of the Avian Science Center, University of Montana, USA
  308. Dr. Bradley Boyle, Research Scientist, University of Arizona Herbarium, University of Arizona, USA
  309. David Wake, Professor Emeritus, University of California Berkeley, USA
  310. Michael Crimmins, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist in Climate Science, University of Arizona, USA
  311. Dr. Christopher Daniel O’Connor, Research Specialist, University of Arizona, USA
  312. Dr. James Ridsill-Smith, Scientist, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization and Adjunct Professor, University of Western Australia
  313. William Z. Lidicker, Professor Emeritus, University of California Berkeley, USA
  314. Bradford A. Hawkins, Professor, University of California Irvine, USA
  315. Hilary Nicholas, Researcher, University of Arizona, USA
  316. Andres Moya, Professor, Centre for Public Health Research, University of Valencia, Spain
  317. Hsiang Ling Chen, Wildlife Biologist, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Arizona, USA
  318. Suzanne Koptur, Professor, Florida International University, Miami, USA
  319. David Inouye, Professor, University of Maryland and Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, Colorado, USA
  320. Mark Tanouye, Professor, University of California Berkeley, USA
  321. Anne Simonis, Researcher, Scripps Institution of Oceonography, University of California San Diego, USA
  322. JImmye Hillman, Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona, USA
  323. Dr. Kent Daane, Extension Specialist, University of California Berkeley, USA
  324. Miguel Altieri, Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  325. Marjorie A. Hoy, Professor, University of Florida, Gainsville, USA
  326. John Lowell Capinera, Professor, University of Florida, Gainsville, USA
  327. Dr. James Hoy, University of Florida and University of Michigan Biological Station, USA
  328. Robert J. Grebenok, Professor, Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA
  329. Daniel A. Hahn, Associate Professor, University of Florida, Gainsville, USA
  330. Astrid Kodric-Brown, Professor, University of New Mexico, USA
  331. Fernando Noriega, Associate Professor, Florida International University, Miama, USA
  332. Kate Boersma, Researcher, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA
  333. Mark Rausher, Professor, Duke University, Durham NC, USA
  334. Dr. Jeff Waage, Professor, and Director, London International Development Centre, London, UK
  335. Brenda Hillman, Professor, St. Mary’s College of California, USA
  336. Nancy Stamp, Professor, Vice Provost and Dean, Binghampton University, SUNY, USA
  337. James H. Brown, Distinguished Professor, University of New Mexico, USA
  338. Fred Nijhout, Professor, Duke University, USA
  339. David Dussourd, Professor, University of Central Arkansas, USA
  340. John Reese, Professor, Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA